### Mathematics and Applied Mathematics

**MATH 110. Introduction to Mathematical Communication and Software (1)**

Mathematical text editors. Mathematical composition and exposition. Posting mathematical material on the Web. Basics of computer symbolic manipulation (Mathematica). Computer vector/matrix manipulation and applications (MATLAB). Basic computer statistical methods (Minitab). Integration of output from computer calculations into text.

**MATH 120. Elementary Functions and Analytic Geometry (3)**

Polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions (emphasis on computation, graphing, and location of roots) straight lines and conic sections. Primarily a precalculus course for the student without a good background in trigonometric functions and graphing and/or analytic geometry. Not open to students with credit for MATH 121 or MATH 125. Prereq: Three years of high school mathematics.

**MATH 121. Calculus for Science and Engineering I (4)**

Functions, analytic geometry of lines and polynomials, limits, derivatives of algebraic and trigonometric functions. Definite integral, antiderivatives, fundamental theorem of calculus, change of variables. Prereq: Three and one half years of high school mathematics.

**MATH 122. Calculus for Science and Engineering II (4)**

Continuation of MATH 121. Exponentials and logarithms, growth and decay, inverse trigonometric functions, related rates, basic techniques of integration, area and volume, polar coordinates, parametric equations. Taylor polynomials and Taylor’s theorem. Prereq: MATH 121.

**MATH 124. Calculus II (4)**

Review of differentiation. Techniques of integration, and applications of the definite integral. Parametric equations and polar coordinates. Taylor’s theorem. Sequences, series, power series. Complex arithmetic. Introduction to multivariable calculus. Prereq: MATH 123 and placement by the department.

**MATH 125. Mathematics I (4)**

Discrete and continuous probability; differential and integral calculus of one variable; graphing, related rates, maxima and minima. Integration techniques, numerical methods, volumes, areas. Applications to the physical, life, and social sciences. Students planning to take more than two semesters of introductory mathematics should take MATH 121. Prereq: Three and one half years of high school mathematics.

**MATH 126. Mathematics II (4)**

Continuation of MATH 125 covering differential equations, multivariable calculus, discrete methods. Partial derivatives, maxima and minima for functions of two variables, linear regression. Differential equations; first and second order equations, systems, Taylor series methods; Newton’s method; difference equations. Prereq: MATH 125.

**MATH 150. Mathematics from a Mathematician’s Perspective (3)**

An interesting and accessible mathematical topic not covered in the standard curriculum is developed. Students are exposed to methods of mathematical reasoning and historical progression of mathematical concepts. Introduction to the way mathematicians work and their attitude toward their profession. Should be taken in freshman year to count toward a major in mathematics. Prereq: Three and one half years of high school mathematics.

**MATH 201. Introduction to Linear Algebra (3)**

Matrix operations, systems of linear equations, vector spaces, subspaces, bases and linear independence, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of matrices, linear transformations, determinants. Less theoretical than MATH 307.

**MATH 223. Calculus for Science and Engineering III (3)**

Introduction to vector algebra; lines and planes. Functions of several variables: partial derivatives, gradients, chain rule, directional derivative, maxima/minima. Multiple integrals, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Derivatives of vector valued functions, velocity and acceleration. Vector fields, line integrals, Green’s theorem. Prereq: MATH 122.

**MATH 224. Elementary Differential Equations (3)**

A first course in ordinary differential equations. First order equations and applications, linear equations with constant coefficients, linear systems, Laplace transforms, numerical methods of solution. Prereq: MATH 223.

**MATH 227. Calculus III (3)**

Vector algebra and geometry. Linear maps and matrices. Calculus of vector valued functions. Derivatives of functions of several variables. Multiple integrals. Vector fields and line integrals. Prereq: MATH 124 or placement by department.

**MATH 228. Differential Equations (3)**

Elementary ordinary differential equations: first order equations; linear systems; applications; numerical methods of solution. Prereq: MATH 227.

**MATH 301. Undergraduate Reading Course (1-3)**

Students must obtain the approval of a supervising professor before registration. More than one credit hour must be approved by the undergraduate committee of the department.

**MATH 302. Problem Solving Seminar (1)**

A seminar devoted to methods of solving problems in various areas of mathematics. Content varies. Students may take this course for credit up to four times.

**MATH 303. Elementary Number Theory (3)**

Primes and divisibility, theory of congruencies, and number theoretic functions. Diophantine equations, quadratic residue theory, and other topics determined by student interest. Emphasis on problem solving (formulating conjectures and justifying them). Prereq: MATH 122.

**MATH 304. Discrete Mathematics (3)**

A general introduction to basic mathematical terminology and the techniques of abstract mathematics in the context of discrete mathematics. Topics introduced are mathematical reasoning, Boolean connectives, deduction, mathematical induction, sets, functions and relations, algorithms, graphs, combinatorial reasoning. Prereq: MATH 122 or MATH 126.

**MATH 305. Introduction to Advanced Mathematics. (3)**

A course on the theory and practice of writing, and reading mathematics. Main topics are logic and the language of mathematics, proof techniques, set theory, and functions. Additional topics may include introductions to number theory, group theory, topology, or other areas of advanced mathematics. Prereq: MATH 122 or MATH 124 or MATH 126.

**MATH 307. Linear Algebra (3)**

A course in linear algebra that studies the fundamentals of vector spaces, inner product spaces, and linear transformations on an axiomatic basis. Topics include: solutions of linear systems, matrix algebra over the real and complex numbers, linear independence, bases and dimension, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition, and determinants. Other topics may include least squares, general inner product and normed spaces, orthogonal projections, finite dimensional spectral theorem. This course is required of all students majoring in mathematics and applied mathematics. More theoretical than MATH 201.

**MATH 308. Introduction to Abstract Algebra (3)**

A first course in abstract algebra, studied on an axiomatic basis. The major algebraic structures studied are groups, rings and fields. Topics include homomorphisms and quotient structures. This course is required of all students majoring in mathematics. It is helpful, but not necessary, for a student to have taken MATH 307 before MATH 308.

**MATH 319. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology (3)**

Applications of probability and stochastic processes to biological systems. Mathematical topics will include: introduction to discrete and continuous probability spaces (including numerical generation of pseudo random samples from specified probability distributions), Markov processes in discrete and continuous time with discrete and continuous sample spaces, point processes including homogeneous and inhomogeneous Poisson processes and Markov chains on graphs, and diffusion processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein- Uhlenbeck process. Biological topics will be determined by the interests of the students and the instructor. Likely topics include: stochastic ion channels, molecular motors and stochastic ratchets, actin and tubulin polymerization, random walk models for neural spike trains, bacterial chemotaxis, signaling and genetic regulatory networks, and stochastic predator-prey dynamics. The emphasis will be on practical simulation and analysis of stochastic phenomena in biological systems. Numerical methods will be developed using both MATLAB and the R statistical package. Student projects will comprise a major part of the course. Prereq: MATH 224 or MATH 228 or BIOL 300 or BIOL 306. Cross-listed as BIOL 319, BIOL 419, EECS 319

**MATH 321. Fundamentals of Analysis I (3)**

Abstract mathematical reasoning in the context of analysis in Euclidean space. Introduction to formal reasoning, sets and functions, and the number systems. Sequences and series; Cauchy sequences and convergence. Required for all mathematics majors. Prereq: MATH 223.

**MATH 322. Fundamentals of Analysis II (3)**

Continuation of MATH 321. Point-set topology in metric spaces with attention to n-dimensional space; completeness, compactness, connectedness, and continuity of functions. Topics in sequences, series of functions, uniform convergence, Fourier series and polynomial approximation. Theoretical development of differentiation and Riemann integration. Required for all mathematics majors. Prereq: MATH 321.

**MATH 324. Introduction to Complex Analysis (3)**

Properties, singularities, and representations of analytic functions, complex integration. Cauchy’s theorems, series residues, conformal mapping and analytic continuation. Riemann surfaces. Relevance to the theory of physical problems. Prereq: MATH 224.

**MATH 326. Geometry and Complex Analysis. (3)**

The theme of this course will be the interplay between geometry and complex analysis, algebra and other fields of mathematics. An effort will be made to highlight significant, unexpected connections between major fields, illustrating the unity of mathematics. The choice of text(s) and syllabus itself will be flexible, to be adapted to the range of interests and backgrounds of pre-enrolled students. Possible topics include: the Mobius group and its subgroups, hyperbolic geometry, elliptic functions, Riemann surfaces, applications of conformal mapping, and potential theory in classical physical models. Offered as MATH 326 and MATH 426. Prereq: MATH 324.

**MATH 327. Convexity and Optimization (3)**

Introduction to the theory of convex sets and functions and to the extremes in problems in areas of mathematics where convexity plays a role. Among the topics discussed are basic properties of convex sets (extreme points, facial structure of polytopes), separation theorems, duality and polars, properties of convex functions, minima and maxima of convex functions over convex set, various optimization problems. Prereq: MATH 223 or consent.

**MATH 330. Scientific Computing: Fundamentals and Applications (3)**

An introductory survey to Scientific Computing, from principles to applications. Topics include accuracy and efficiency, conditioning and stability, numerical solution of linear and nonlinear systems, optimization, interpolation, quadrature rules, numerical solutions of ODEs and PDEs. Coreq: MATH 224.

**MATH 333. Mathematics and Brain (3)**

This course is intended for upper undergraduate students in Mathematics, Cognitive Science, Biomedical Engineering, Biology or Neuroscience who have an interest in quantitative investigation of the brain and its functions. Students will be introduced to a variety of mathematical techniques needed to model and simulate different brain functions, and to analyze the results of the simulations and of available measured data. The mathematical exposition will be followed – when appropriate – by the corresponding implementation in Matlab. The course will cover some basic topics in the mathematical aspects of differential equations, electromagnetism, Inverse problems and Imaging related to brain functions. Validation and falsification of the mathematical models in the light of available experimental data will be addressed. This course will be a first step towards organizing the different brain investigative modalities within a unified mathematical framework. A final presentation and written report are part of the course requirements. Prereq: MATH 224 or MATH 228.

**MATH 338. Introduction to Dynamical Systems (3)**

Nonlinear discrete dynamical systems in one and two dimensions. Chaotic dynamics, elementary bifurcation theory, hyperbolicity, symbolic dynamics, structural stability, stable manifold theory. Prereq: MATH 223.

**MATH 342. Introduction to Research in Mathematical Biology. (1)**

The purpose of this seminar is to introduce students to some of the research being done at Case that explores questions at the intersection of mathematics and biology. Students will explore roughly five research collaborations, spending two weeks with each research group. In the first three classes of each two-week block, students will read and discuss relevant papers, guided by members of that research group, and the two-week period will culminate in a talk in which a member of the research group will present a potential undergraduate project in that area. After the final group’s talk, students will divide themselves into groups of two to four people and choose one project for further exploration. Together, they will write up this project as a research proposal, introducing the problem, explaining how it connects to broader scientific questions, and outlining the proposed work. It is expected that students will use the associated research group as a resource, but the proposal should be their own work. Students will submit a first draft, receive feedback, and then submit a revised draft. Offered as BIOL 309 and MATH 342.

**MATH 343. Theoretical Computer Science (3)**

Introduction to mathematical logic, different classes of automata and their correspondence to different classes of formal languages, recursive functions and computability, assertions and program verification, denotational semantics. MATH/EECS 343 and MATH 410 cannot both be taken for credit. Prereq: MATH 304 and EECS 340. Cross-listed as EECS 343.

**MATH 351. Senior Project for the Mathematics and Physics Program. (2)**

A two-semester course (2 credits per semester) in the joint B.S. in Mathematics and Physics program. Project based on numerical and/or theoretical research under the supervision of a mathematics faculty member, possibly jointly with a faculty member from physics. Study of the techniques utilized in a specific research area and of recent literature associated with the project. Work leading to meaningful results which are to be presented as a term paper and an oral report at the end of the second semester. Supervising faculty will review progress with the student on a regular basis, including detailed progress reports made twice each semester, to ensure successful completion of the work.

**MATH 352. Mathematics Capstone. (3)**

Mathematics Senior Project. Students pursue a project based on experimental, theoretical or teaching research under the supervision of a mathematics faculty member, a faculty member from another Case department or a research scientist or engineer from another institution. A departmental Senior Project Coordinator must approve all project proposals and this same person will receive regular oral and written progress reports. Final results are presented at the end of the second semester as a paper in a style suitable for publication in a professional journal as well as an oral report in a public Mathematics Capstone symposium.

**MATH 361. Geometry I (3)**

An introduction to the various two-dimensional geometries, including Euclidean, spherical, hyperbolic, projective, and affine. The course will examine the axiomatic basis of geometry, with an emphasis on transformations. Topics include the parallel postulate and its alternatives, isometrics and transformation groups, tilings, the hyperbolic plane and its models, spherical geometry, affine and projective transformations, and other topics. We will examine the role of complex and hypercomplex numbers in the algebraic representation of transformations. The course is self-contained. Prereq: MATH 224.

**MATH 363. Knot Theory (3)**

An introduction to the mathematical theory of knots and links, with emphasis on the modern combinatorial methods. Reidemeister moves on link projections, ambient and regular isotopies, linking number tricolorability, rational tangles, braids, torus knots, seifert surfaces and genus, the knot polynomials (bracket, X, Jones, Alexander, HOMFLY), crossing numbers of alternating knots and amphicheirality. Connections to theoretical physics, molecular biology, and other scientific applications will be pursued in term projects, as appropriate to the background and interests of the students. Prereq: MATH 223.

**MATH 376. Dynamics of Biological Systems II: Tools for Mathematical Biology (3)**

Building on the material in Biology 300, this course focuses on the mathematical tools used to construct and analyze biological models, with examples drawn largely from ecology but also from epidemiology, developmental biology, and other areas. Analytic “paper and pencil” techniques are emphasized, but we will also use computers to help develop intuition. By the end of the course, students should be able to recognize basic building blocks in biological models, be able to perform simple analysis, and be more fluent in translating between verbal and mathematical descriptions. Offered as BIOL 306 and MATH 376. Prereq: BIOL 300 or MATH 224 or consent of instructor.

**MATH 378: Computational Neuroscience (3)**

Computer simulations and mathematical analysis of neurons and neural circuits, and the computational properties of nervous systems. Students are taught a range of models for neurons and neural circuits, and are asked to implement and explore the computational and dynamic properties of these models. The course introduces students to dynamical systems theory for the analysis of neurons and neural circuits, as well as a cable theory, passive and active compartmental modeling, numerical integration methods, models of plasticity and learning, models of brain systems, and their relationship to artificial and neural networks. Term project required. Students enrolled in MATH 478 will make arrangements with the instructor to attend additional lectures and complete additional assignments addressing mathematical topics related to the course. Prereq: MATH 223 & MATH 224 or BIOL 300 & BIOL 306, or consent of department. Cross-listed as EBME 478, EECS 478, MATH 478, NEUR 478

**MATH 380. Introduction to Probability (3)**

Combinatorial analysis. Permutations and combinations. Axioms of probability. Sample space and events. Equally likely outcomes. Conditional probability. Bayes’ formula. Independent events and trials. Discrete random variables, probability mass functions. Expected value, variance. Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, geometric, negative binomial random variables. Continuous random variables, density functions. Expected value and variance. Uniform, normal, exponential, Gamma random variables. The De Moivre-Laplace limit theorem. Joint probability mass functions and densities. Independent random variables and the distribution of their sums. Covariance. Conditional expectations and distributions (discrete case). Moment generating functions. Law of large numbers. Central limit theorem. Additional topics (time permitting): the Poisson process, finite state space Markov chains, entropy. Prereq: MATH 223 or MATH 227.

### Statistics

**STAT 201. Basic Statistics for Social and Life Sciences (3)**

Designed for undergraduates in the social sciences and life sciences who need to use statistical techniques in their fields. Descriptive statistics, probability models, sampling distributions. Point and confidence interval estimation, hypothesis testing. Elementary regression and analysis of variance. Not for credit toward major or minor in Statistics. Counts for CAS Quantitative Reasoning Requirement.

**STAT 243. Statistical Theory with Application I (3)**

Introduction to fundamental concepts of statistics through examples including design of an observational study, industrial simulation. Theoretical development motivated by sample survey methodology. Randomness, distribution functions, conditional probabilities. Derivation of common discrete distributions. Expectation operator. Statistics as random variables, point and interval estimation. Maximum likelihood estimators. Properties of estimators. Prereq: MATH 122 or MATH 126.

**STAT 244. Statistical Theory with Application II (3)**

Extension of inferences to continuous-valued random variables. Common continuous-valued distributions. Expectation operator. Maximum likelihood estimators for the continuous case. Simple linear, multiple and polynomial regression. Properties of regression estimators when errors are Gaussian. Regression diagnostics. Class or student projects gathering real data or generating simulated data, fitting models and analyzing residuals from fit. Prereq: STAT 243.

**STAT 312. Basic Statistics for Engineering and Science (3)**

For advanced undergraduate students in engineering, physical sciences, life sciences. Comprehensive introduction to probability models and statistical methods of analyzing data with the object of formulating statistical models and choosing appropriate methods for inference from experimental and observational data and for testing the model’s validity. Balanced approach with equal emphasis on probability, fundamental concepts of statistics, point and interval estimation, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, design of experiments, and regression modeling. Note: Credit given for only one (1) of STAT 312, 313, 333, 433. Prereq: MATH 122 or equivalent.

**STAT 313. Statistics for Experimenter (3)**

For advanced undergraduates in engineering, physical sciences, life sciences. Comprehensive introduction to modeling data and statistical methods of analyzing data. General objective is to train students in formulating statistical models, in choosing appropriate methods for inference from experimental and observational data and to test the validity of these models. Focus on practicalities of inference from experimental data. Inference for curve and surface fitting to real data sets. Designs for experiments and simulations. Student generation of experimental data and application of statistical methods for analysis. Critique of model; use of regression diagnostics to analyze errors. Note: Credit given for only one (1) of STAT 312, 313, 333, 433. Prereq: MATH 122 or equivalent.

**STAT 325. Data Analysis and Linear Models (3)**

Basic exploratory data analysis for univariate response with single or multiple covariates. Graphical methods and data summarization, model-fitting using S-plus computing language. Linear and multiple regression. Emphasis on model selection criteria, on diagnostics to assess goodness of fit and interpretation. Techniques include transformation, smoothing, median polish, robust/resistant methods. Case studies and analysis of individual data sets. Notes of caution and some methods for handling bad data. Knowledge of regression is helpful. Offered as STAT 325 and STAT 425. Prereq: STAT 207 or STAT 243 or STAT 312 or EPBI 431 or EPBI 441 or EPBI 458.

**STAT 326. Multivariate Analysis and Data Mining (3)**

Extensions of exploratory data analysis and modeling to multivariate response observations and to non-Gaussian data. Singular value decomposition and projection, principal components, factor analysis and latent structure analysis, discriminant analysis and clustering techniques, cross-validation, E-M algorithm, CART. Introduction to generalized linear modeling. Case studies of complex data sets with multiple objectives for analysis. Recommended preparation: STAT 325/425. Offered as STAT 326 and STAT 426.

**STAT 332. Statistics for Signal Processing (3)**

For advanced undergraduate students or beginning graduate students in engineering, physical sciences, life sciences. Introduction to probability models and statistical methods. Emphasis on probability as relative frequencies. Derivation of conditional probabilities and memoryless channels. Joint distribution of random variables, transformations, autocorrelation, series of irregular observations, stationarity. Random harmonic signals with noise, random phase and/or random amplitude. Gaussian and Poisson signals. Modulation and averaging properties. Transmission through linear filters. Power spectra, bandwidth, white and colored noise. ARMA processes and forecasting. Optimal linear systems, signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener filter. Completion of additional assignments required from graduate students registered in this course. Offered as STAT 332 and STAT 432. Prereq: MATH 122.

**STAT 333. Uncertainty in Engineering and Science (3)**

Phenomena of uncertainty appear in engineering and science for various reasons and can be modeled in different ways. The course integrates the mainstream ideas in statistical data analysis with models of uncertain phenomena stemming from three distinct viewpoints: algorithmic/computational complexity; classical probability theory; and chaotic behavior of nonlinear systems. Descriptive statistics, estimation procedures and hypothesis testing (including design of experiments). Random number generators and their testing. Monte Carlo Methods. Mathematica notebooks and simulations will be used. Note: Credit given for only one (1) of STAT 312, 313, 333, 433. Graduate students are required to do an extra project. Offered as STAT 333 and STAT 433. Prereq: MATH 122 or MATH 223.

**STAT 345. Theoretical Statistics I (3)**

Topics provide the background for statistical inference. Random variables; distribution and density functions; transformations, expectation. Common univariate distributions. Multiple random variables; joint, marginal and conditional distributions; hierarchical models, covariance. Distributions of sample quantities, distributions of sums of random variables, distributions of order statistics. Methods of statistical inference. Offered as STAT 345, STAT 445, and EPBI 481. Prereq: MATH 122 or MATH 223 or Coreq: EPBI 431.

**STAT 346. Theoretical Statistics II (3)**

Point estimation: maximum likelihood, moment estimators. Methods of evaluating estimators including mean squared error, consistency, “best” unbiased and sufficiency. Hypothesis testing; likelihood ratio and union-intersection tests. Properties of tests including power function, bias. Interval estimation by inversion of test statistics, use of pivotal quantities. Application to regression. Graduate students are responsible for mathematical derivations, and full proofs of principal theorems. Offered as STAT 346,STAT 446, and EPBI 482. Prereq: STAT 345 or STAT 445 or EPBI 481.

**STAT 395. Senior Project in Statistics (3)**

An individual project done under faculty supervision involving the investigation and statistical analysis of a real problem encountered in university research or an industrial setting. Written report. Counts as SAGES Senior Capstone.